October 20, 2014

LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five Editions

See below for a table of all star libraries across all five editions of the LJ Index of Public Library Service, as well as highlights from the “5 Star, 5 Editions” group representing a variety of expenditure ­categories following the table.

Note: Due to changes in the release schedule of IMLS data, two editions of the LJ Index were published in 2009–February 2009 (Edition 1) and November 2009 (Edition 2).

 

 

 

 

LJ Index Star Libraries Receiving Any Number of Stars in All 5 Editions (2009 thru 2012)

Expenditure CategoryLibraryCityStateStars 2009.1 EdStars 2009.2 Ed.Stars 2010 Ed.Stars 2011 Ed.Stars 2012 Ed.Score 2009.1 Ed.Score 2009.2 Ed.Score 2010 Ed.Score 2011 Ed.Score 2012 Ed.
$30M+SAN JOSE PUBLIC LIBRARYSAN JOSECA44343863800843928882
$30M+SANTA CLARA COUNTY LIBRARYLOS GATOSCA434447777458719351038
$30M+CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARYCLEVELANDOH5455411878529861067996
$30M+COLUMBUS METROPOLITAN LIBRARYCOLUMBUSOH5555513371167125011891077
$30M+MULTNOMAH COUNTY LIBRARYPORTLANDOR553551038103186010521114
$10M-$29.9MBERKELEY PUBLIC LIBRARYBERKELEYCA444447989321025928988
$10M-$29.9MSAN MATEO COUNTY LIBRARYSAN MATEOCA44444836955963926941
$10M-$29.9MDOUGLAS COUNTY LIBRARIESCASTLE ROCKCO444448679579669171010
$10M-$29.9MARLINGTON HEIGHTS MEMORIAL LIBRARYARLINGTON HEIGHTSIL5555512311022110410761219
$10M-$29.9MNAPERVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARYNAPERVILLEIL5555512461229165416051618
$10M-$29.9MSCHAUMBURG TOWNSHIP DISTRICT LIBRARYSCHAUMBURGIL5555511371054109411601137
$10M-$29.9MEVANSVILLE-VANDERBURGH PUBLIC LIBRARYEVANSVILLEIN35445816101393510431038
$10M-$29.9MALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYFORT WAYNEIN445448309921038964954
$10M-$29.9MJOHNSON COUNTY LIBRARYOVERLAND PARKKS43333875838736747790
$10M-$29.9MCARROLL COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYNEW WINDSORMD4444499110539029311033
$10M-$29.9MANN ARBOR DISTRICT LIBRARYANN ARBORMI5555511151273136513551386
$10M-$29.9MKANSAS CITY PUBLIC LIBRARYKANSAS CITYMO344447759239701050996
$10M-$29.9MMERCER COUNTY LIBRARYLAWRENCEVILLENJ5555510611109114811711235
$10M-$29.9MMIDDLE COUNTRY PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTEREACHNY5555518871595168914551321
$10M-$29.9MAKRON-SUMMIT CNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYAKRONOH555441116120511221026998
$10M-$29.9MSTARK COUNTY DISTRICT LIBRARYCANTONOH45554828121811501073884
$10M-$29.9MMADISON PUBLIC LIBRARYMADISONWI33334754778726753885
$5M-$9.9MBEVERLY HILLS PUBLIC LIBRARYBEVERLY HILLSCA4543395212061026958976
$5M-$9.9MPALO ALTO CITY LIBRARYPALO ALTOCA4444497098810471007997
$5M-$9.9MREDWOOD CITY PUBLIC LIBRARYREDWOOD CITYCA5445511261047114414001868
$5M-$9.9MGREENWICH LIBRARYGREENWICHCT5455514021148119813141367
$5M-$9.9MCHAMPAIGN PUBLIC LIBRARYCHAMPAIGNIL3334491287894111051157
$5M-$9.9MFOUNTAINDALE PUBLIC LIBRARY DISTRICTBOLINGBROOKIL333338468368501005932
$5M-$9.9MSKOKIE PUBLIC LIBRARYSKOKIEIL4444410691079102510261226
$5M-$9.9MGREAT NECK LIBRARYGREAT NECKNY543331163984921902908
$5M-$9.9MPLAINVIEW-OLD BETHPAGE PUBLIC LIBRARYPLAINVIEWNY5555511391326131513651418
$5M-$9.9MPORT WASHINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARYPORT WASHINGTONNY4554510561188122112321312
$5M-$9.9MNORTHPORT PUBLIC LIBRARYNORTHPORTNY44444980984104210831157
$5M-$9.9MMASTICS-MORICHES-SHIRLEY COMMUNITY LIBSHIRLEYNY4443310611010975909923
$5M-$9.9MWASHINGTON-CENTERVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTERVILLEOH4555511001293129613501389
$5M-$9.9MWORTHINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARYWORTHINGTONOH5555514121473153317211769
$5M-$9.9MWILLIAMSBURG REGIONAL LIBRARYWILLIAMSBURGVA5554413541395124911441132
$1M-$4.9MST. HELENA PUBLIC LIBRARYST. HELENACA5454425431697203719281783
$1M-$4.9MSAN MIGUEL LIBRARY DISTRICT # 1/TELLURIDETELLURIDECO5555524132507247127822916
$1M-$4.9MDARIEN LIBRARYDARIENCT5554524093136247818651990
$1M-$4.9MSPENCER COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYROCKPORTIN5555523022153200420711972
$1M-$4.9MCOFFEY COUNTY LIBRARYBURLINGTONKS4333315131322141314401473
$1M-$4.9MPRINCETON PUBLIC LIBRARYPRINCETONNJ4444316741669165915551571
$1M-$4.9MBERNARDSVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARYBERNARDSVILLENJ5555522562370246924672493
$1M-$4.9MAVALON FREE PUBLIC LIBRARYAVALONNJ5555520822568388539043731
$1M-$4.9MFAYETTEVILLE FREE LIBRARYFAYETTEVILLENY5555519661916202320852301
$1M-$4.9MCENTER MORICHES FREE PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTER MORICHESNY4445516611631199021282295
$1M-$4.9MCUTCHOGUE NEW SUFFOLK FREE LIBRARYCUTCHOGUENY5345519941496157520802335
$1M-$4.9MPORT JEFFERSON FREE LIBRARYPORT JEFFERSONNY5555422612306248725441742
$1M-$4.9MWESTHAMPTON FREE LIBRARYWESTHAMPTON BEACHNY4544416991834181514861724
$1M-$4.9MGRANDVIEW HEIGHTS PUBLIC LIBRARYGRANDVIEW HTS.OH5555565536628521343764207
$1M-$4.9MHUDSON LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETYHUDSONOH3333314001406137014161614
$1M-$4.9MLAKEWOOD PUBLIC LIBRARYLAKEWOODOH3445414791673169522191732
$1M-$4.9MTWINSBURG PUBLIC LIBRARYTWINSBURGOH4444318421570162816481647
$1M-$4.9MUPPER ARLINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARYUPPER ARLINGTONOH5555430033202278922251930
$1M-$4.9MWICKLIFFE PUBLIC LIBRARYWICKLIFFEOH5554418971937211320741887
$1M-$4.9MMARY RILEY STYLES PUBLIC LIBRARYFALLS CHURCHVA3344313961401153515811574
$400K-$999.9KHAINES BOROUGH PUBLIC LIBRARYHAINESAK5555425502773281124992188
$400K-$999.9KSEWARD COMMUNITY LIBRARYSEWARDAK4345416051573163219961566
$400K-$999.9KUNALASKA PUBLIC LIBRARYUNALASKAAK4555517261985280229722868
$400K-$999.9KELDREDGE PUBLIC LIBRARYCHATHAMMA4444317101752168116591554
$400K-$999.9KWELLFLEET PUBLIC LIBRARYWELLFLEETMA5555531143085326532783389
$400K-$999.9KWEST TISBURY FREE PUBLIC LIBRARYVINEYARD HAVENMA4555517032055226124182536
$400K-$999.9KOSTERVILLE FREE LIBRARYOSTERVILLEMA5455520401816201024682639
$400K-$999.9KCAMDEN PUBLIC LIBRARYCAMDENME4454517181780205020592761
$400K-$999.9KROCKLAND PUBLIC LIBRARYROCKLANDME3433315081601153515441477
$400K-$999.9KAMAGANSETT FREE LIBRARYAMAGANSETTNY5555521111983206120622335
$400K-$999.9KCOLUMBIANA PUBLIC LIBRARYCOLUMBIANAOH4444317141699161016901506
$400K-$999.9KNEW CARLISLE PUBLIC LIBRARYNEW CARLISLEOH5553441854425212714851633
$400K-$999.9KORRVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARYORRVILLEOH4544317021702169216551548
$400K-$999.9KISLAND FREE LIBRARYNEW SHOREHAMRI5555544594863503250194630
$400K-$999.9KKILBOURN PUBLIC LIBRARYWISCONSIN DELLSWI5333330501480155415801494
$200K-$399.9KNORFOLK LIBRARYNORFOLKCT4545517631915177020122134
$200K-$399.9KJAMES KENNEDY PUBLIC LIBRARYDYERSVILLEIA3344314571561156816601583
$200K-$399.9KWATERLOO-GRANT TOWNSHIP PUBLIC LIBRARYWATERLOOIN5443317871885180116271529
$200K-$399.9KGRAND MARAIS PUBLIC LIBRARYGRAND MARAISMN5555523212771222524552363
$200K-$399.9KJULIA L. BUTTERFIELD MEMORIAL LIBRARYCOLD SPRINGNY3445514931612177320822391
$200K-$399.9KCENTERBURG PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTERBURGOH5555521832318248323992328
$200K-$399.9KSHERBURNE MEMORIALKILLINGTONVT5555524022366229025512859
$100K-$199.9KFLOMATON PUBLIC LIBRARYFLOMATONAL5554423262369186617141779
$100K-$199.9KQUARTZSITE PUBLIC LIBRARYQUARTZSITEAZ3433415801629147914771734
$100K-$199.9KLA VETA REGIONAL LIBRARY DISTRICTLA VETACO5555519862728258725062629
$100K-$199.9KSENECA FREE LIBRARYSENECAKS4354417201487259217981735
$100K-$199.9KNEODESHA/W.A. RANKIN MEMORIALNEODESHAKS4445417391827182120852006
$100K-$199.9KCENTRALIA PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTRALIAMO4345518631608175222032211
$100K-$199.9KATKINSON PUBLIC LIBRARYATKINSONNE5555522592292210823112161
$100K-$199.9KCENTRAL CITY PUBLIC LIBRARYCENTRAL CITYNE5555529432600250226722584
$100K-$199.9KNELIGH PUBLIC LIBRARYNELIGHNE5445518381849170623782698
$100K-$199.9KFALCONER PUBLIC LIBRARYFALCONERNY5555528502800265128702811
$100K-$199.9KTIVOLI FREE LIBRARYTIVOLINY4345515401545170220392056
$100K-$199.9KCLAUD H GILMER MEMORIAL LIBRARYROCKSPRINGSTX3445515501851175819542460
$100K-$199.9KMT. PLEASANT PUBLIC LIBRARYMT. PLEASANTUT3334416001555144416801805
$50K-$99.9KPLAINS COMMUNITY LIBRARYPLAINSKS3434415141679152315441608
$50K-$99.9KGUILFORD MEMORIAL LIBRARYGUILFORDME4444515851699185117971645
$50K-$99.9KMADISON VALLEY PUBLIC LIBRARYENNISMT5544520862798189318143461
$50K-$99.9KHARTINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARYHARTINGTONNE5555520072432246229303072
$50K-$99.9KLINCOLN PUBLIC LIBRARYLINCOLNNH5555523362293231222452426
$50K-$99.9KELEANOR DAGGETT MEMORIAL LIBRARYCHAMANM5534424492663145015761515
$50K-$99.9KPHILMONT PUBLIC LIBRARYPHILMONTNY4455415031512163416821618
$50K-$99.9KMACSHERRY LIBRARYALEXANDRIA BAYNY4444517711778172917141812
$50K-$99.9KELBRIDGE FREE LIBRARYELBRIDGENY5555524081853195819122142
$50K-$99.9KUPTON COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYMCCAMEYTX5444521611667185618981895
$50K-$99.9KREAL COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARYLEAKEYTX3445313421537143718021366
$50K-$99.9KCRAFTSBURY PUBLICCRAFTSBURY COMMONVT3445514621616172221062381
$10K-$49.9KELLINWOOD SCHOOL COMMUNITY LIBRARYELLINWOODKS3433314391435138513481317
$10K-$49.9KBUHLER PUBLIC LIBRARYBUHLERKS3455513831483173017111733
$10K-$49.9KIDA LONG GOODMAN MEMORIAL LIBRARYST. JOHNKS5555534053277287930652691
$10K-$49.9KCENTERVILLE COMMUNITY LIBRARYCENTERVILLESD5555517761827192016731785
$10K-$49.9KBLACK BRIDGE LIBRARYDIME BOXTX5554520621918162716321778
$10K-$49.9KLEWISTON PUBLIC LIBRARYLEWISTONUT5543420761599153713401404
$10K-$49.9KPIEDMONT PUBLIC LIBRARYPIEDMONTWV4454515751543161715371561

Thirty U.S. public libraries distinguished themselves by earning a 5-Star rating in each LJ Index edition, from 2009 through 2012. This group of select libraries is located in 15 U.S. states representing the New England, Mideastern, Great Lakes, Plains and Rocky Mountain regions (using the regions defined by U.S. Bureau of Economic Affairs; see www.bea.gov/regional/docs/regions.cfm). While all 30 libraries are winners in every sense of the word, we offer the profiles below as illustrations of the exceptional libraries belonging to this group. Because we wanted a mix of both library sizes and geographical regions, not all Index expenditure groups have been included here. For this reason, we make special mention of libraries in two categories: Columbus Metropolitan Library, OH, the only 5-Stars, 5-Edition library from the $30M+ group, and La Veta Regional Library District, CO; Atkinson Public Library, NE; Central City Public Library, NE; and Falconer Public Library, NY, from the $100K–$200K group.

ljx121101webStarSpot1 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsBERNARDSVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, NJ
2010 Population 7,345
2010 Expenditures $1M
l j i Category $1M–$4.9M

While the staff and community of the Bernardsville Public Library are always excited to receive another 5-Star rating, they continue to look at other libraries for ideas and inspiration, says Director Karen Brodsky. Like other Star libraries, Bernardsville PL focuses on positive efficiencies. Much of the library’s programming is made possible by volunteer help—programs like English as a Second Language, financial management, nutrition, author talks, poetry workshops, online learning, and video game design. In fact, one popular ongoing community education program, CARES (Community Assistance Resource and Education Services), was the brainchild of a man from a nearby town who worked with the library to execute the idea.

ljx121101webStarSpot2 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsCenterville Community Library, SD
2010 Population 1,848
2010 Expenditures $45.5K
l j i Category $10K–$49.9K

Centerville Community Library has been a joint public and school district library since 1994, and in recent years the LJ Index Star ratings have been a boon to the library’s publicity efforts. While the IMLS-reported operating budget puts the library in the smallest LJI expenditure group, the library’s combined budget is closer to $78K. Beyond funding advantages, school librarian Linda Holberg and community librarian Lindsey Hansen described the synergy that the arrangement affords in a webinar held by the Nebraska Library Commission. For instance, accommodating school and community open hours effectively provides students and residents with extended access to resources. Both “sides” of the library participate in community promotional and fundraising events, such as the annual Tour of Homes, school homecoming festivities, and the Christmas weekend parade.

ljx121101webStarSpot3 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsFayetteville Free Library, NY
2010 Population 10,192
2010 Expenditures $1.2M
l j i Category $1M–$4.9M

At the Fayetteville Free Library (FFL), patrons make reserved appointments with librarians and technical staff for job help and readers’ advisory, which is just one example cited by Executive Director Susan Considine as indicating the library’s emphasis on community engagement. FFL was also the first library in the state of New York to deliver 3M’s Cloud Library System for ebooks, while its Library After Dark programs—minifundraising and entertainment events including live musical and comedic performances—allow the community to enjoy the library’s space in less conventional ways. During the recession, FFL worked to increase its operational efficiency, for instance, by implementing RFID technology to save space and time in managing the library’s collection.

ljx121101webStarSpot4 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsGrand Marais Public Library, MN
2010 Population 1,426
2010 Expenditures $225K
l j i Category $100K–$399.9K

Repeated 5-Star recognition has been added impetus to the already strong local support for the Grand Marais Public Library located on Lake Superior near the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Director Linda Chappell highlighted the great appreciation for the library, citing a recent one percent sales tax jointly approved by the Minnesota state legislature and Cook County. The tax was levied for multiple recreational improvement projects in the county, including countywide Wi-Fi, a biomass district heat and power plant, enhancements to a public golf course, and the recently completed 2,400 square foot expansion of the library’s building providing a total of 6,700 square feet featuring a new quiet reading room.

ljx121101webStarSpot5 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsHartington Public Library, NE
2010 Population 1,475
2010 Expenditures $92K
l j i Category $50K–$99.9K

Director Tami Anderson says the key contributing factor to the Hartington Public Library’s repeat 5-Star ratings is its attention to great customer service and diligence keeping abreast of the latest library trends. In its updated computer lab, the Wi-Fi hot spot is a popular after-school hangout where library staff routinely distribute extra laptops to patrons. The art gallery on the upper level of the library’s Carnegie building attracts additional visitors while raising awareness of the visual arts. In 2011, the library ran a recarpeting campaign by “selling” $30 carpet squares to local patrons and businesses. Within four months, the library had raised over $20,000 to install the new carpeting buildingwide, with no additional tax funding.

ljx121101webStarSpot6 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsIsland Free Library, New Shoreham, RI
2010 Population 1,035
2010 Expenditures $447K
l j i Category $400K–$999.9K

Like some other top-scoring LJ Index libraries, Island Free Library operates in a resort community. On a fairly small operating budget, library director Kristin Baumann is proud that the library “does a heck of a job” delivering responsive services to residents and seasonal visitors. Seeking inexpensive but effective collaborations, the library runs a joint film festival with a local environmental organization, the Ocean View Foundation, and also cleverly routed the path of its annual Lantern Walk fundraiser to end at the Block Island Historical Society’s open house. On summer evenings, the library’s lawn is aglow with devices held by residents and visitors alike, making use of the library’s 24-hour Wi-Fi access.

ljx121101webStarSpot7 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsNaperville Public Library, IL
2010 Population 144,560
2010 Expenditures $14.8M
l j i Category $10M–$29.9M

Naperville Public Library director John Spears extends primary credit for the library’s repeated Star nods to the community of this fifth largest city in Illinois, noting that the library board emphasizes community engagement and supports a healthy relationship with city government. While the library’s financial situation has suffered owing to losses in tax-based income since 2009, the city granted a $760,000 increase to the library’s levy for FY13. Partnerships are crucial for Naperville PL, which has initiated joint database purchasing with local school districts, holds story times at the DuPage Children’s Museum in exchange for interactive displays at the library, collaborates on special programs designed for residents with autism, and conducts story times in multiple languages with the help of a community foreign-language resource, Language Stars.

ljx121101webStarSpot8 LJ Index 2012: All the Stars, All Five EditionsWorthington Public Library, OH
2010 Population 61,549
2010 Expenditures $8.2M
l j i Category $5M–$9.9M

Besides its consistently high rankings in the LJ Index since 2009, the Worthington Public Library was also the 2007 Gale/LJ Library of the Year. Rather than resting on these laurels, however, the library uses them as inspiration to design and deliver other relevant and innovative local programming such as office hours at the local food pantry and at local immunization clinics, said director and CEO Chuck Gibson. Meanwhile, Worthington PL is also currently gearing up to open two new homework help centers, while library staff also serve on numerous nonprofit boards in the community. To create a narrative showcasing the library’s role in the area, the library developed a marketing campaign, Find Yourself Here, which received a John Cotton Dana Award in 2011.

This article was published in Library Journal. Subscribe today and save up to 35% off the regular subscription rate.

Ray Lyons & Keith Curry Lance About Ray Lyons & Keith Curry Lance

Ray Lyons (raylyons@gmail.com) is an independent consultant and statistical programmer in Cleveland. His articles on library statistics and assessment have also appeared in Public Library Quarterly, Public Libraries, and Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. He blogs on library statistics and assessment at libperformance.com.
Keith Curry Lance (keithlance@comcast.net) is an independent consultant based in suburban Denver. He also consults with the Colorado-based RSL Research Group. In both capacities, he conducts research on libraries of all types for state library agencies, state library associations, and other library-related organizations. For more information, visit http://www.KeithCurryLance.com.

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Comments

  1. Gary Pinnix says:

    I am a patron of the Columbus Library (Ohio), a 5-Star library, which
    it/they very much deserve.
    Because they have the top highest points rating each year over the past
    five years in their catagory and top total score in points those years ,
    I feel they deserve to be shown at the top of the ratings list column they appear in;
    instead of alphabetical order by state as they are now shown.
    (or maybe listed as A-hi-A as many citizens pronounce it ?)Thanks for your con-
    sideration, Gary Pinnix

    • Ray Lyons & Keith Curry Lance says:

      Hello Gary

      Thanks so much for your thoughtful comments. You raise an interesting point about how the Columbus Metropolitan Library is listed among all libraries that received LJ Index Stars in all five ratings editions (at the link: http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2012/11/managing-libraries/lj-index/class-of-2012/lj-index-2012-all-the-stars-all-five-editions/). In the main article we list the 2012 Star libraries sorted by score within each operating expenditures group (at this link:
      http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2012/11/industry-news/lj-index-2012-the-star-libraries/).

      It sounds like you’d like to see the listing of all five LJ Index editions sorted by score within expenditure group, rather than by state and then alphabetically by library name. You can do that now by using the SORTING feature of the posted spreadsheet. Here are instructions copied from the State by State page of the online article:

      “To sort the table, select the desired column by clicking the cell in the head row of the table. To sort the table by two criteria, first click the header column you’d like to be the initial sort factor. Then add a secondary sort by holding shift while selecting another column.”

      We would like to point out, however, that you should not give too much weight to your library’s specific scoring. The counts of stars awarded are much more important than specific rating scores because the scores are not nearly as precise as they appear to be. The main purpose for calculating scores is to differentiate the most highly productive libraries from their peers based on the four statistics these ratings use. We only display the scoring so people can see each step of our calculations clearly. For this reason, we would not include a column of 5-edition scoring totals (as you have devised for yourself) because these scores are not precise or informative enough to justify that. There are also statistical reasons for not adding a library’s scores for two or more editions’ scores together.

      Rating systems in general–like the U.S. News & World Report College and University rankings–are essentially contests. With the LJ Index we set fairly arbitrary rules such as limiting the number of libraries to be recognized, excluding the tiniest libraries, defining only 3-, 4-, and 5-star awards, etc. The scoring is a tool that allows us to carry out these contest rules, if you will. Beyond that the scores are not that meaningful–again due to the underlying imprecision of the data and to the scoring methods we use. It is quite possible that two libraries with similar but unequal scores could be almost equal in reality.

      We purposely avoid naming 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. place rankings within the expenditure groups in order to acknowledge the limitations of the data and rating methods. So it is not really unfair to list a set of 5 Star libraries alphabetically by name. They all earned the same number of Stars and deserve that distinction equally. In fact, we have considered listing the annual ratings alphabetically but so far have stayed with sorting them by score within peer groups.

      Again, thanks for your ideas and your inspiring loyalty to Columbus Metropolitan Library.

      Ray Lyons & Keith Curry Lance

  2. I am a Columbus resident and the Columbus Metropolitan Libraries did not deserve that rating. When black patrons are targeted by employees with harassment and racial profiling; it is quite ridiculous and a bit preposterous to rate it in any category other than a 0 especailly when an employee code of conduct is not put into place to insure fairness all around is nothing short of pure negligence and insidious arrogance!