June 28, 2016

Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On | Periodicals Price Survey 2015

Like the ground in the Ring of Fire that surrounds the Pacific Ocean, the serials world is in almost constant motion, responding simultaneously to pressures both large and small. As in seismology, some of the pressures result in incremental changes, while others, often the result of years of incremental change hidden below the surface, seem suddenly to shake the serials world like an earthquake.

Cash compression

Budget pressure remains constant. The overall economy appears to be growing and expanding, but the public sector is still not experiencing growth sufficient to return to pre–Great Recession levels when adjusted for inflation. According to reports from the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), overall state spending has increased 9.4% over prerecession levels, increasing from $687 billion in 2008 to an expected expenditure of $752 billion in 2015. However, calculating inflation based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2015 expenditures will fall short of the $772 billion that would be needed just to keep up. According to the NASBO report, “Budget growth has remained below the historical average throughout the recovery period. And growth in general fund revenues in fiscal 2014 was minimal, with collections below projections in a number of states.” Funding for K–12 education has seen some relief, as a total of $11.1 billion was added to state budgets in 2015, and higher education also saw a healthy increase of $4.4 billion. But despite several years of modest increases, overall budgets have not returned to prerecession levels of spending when adjusted for inflation.

The stagnation in public spending is reflected in budgets for higher education and libraries. In a 2015 survey of college and university chief academic officers conducted by Gallup and Inside Higher Ed, only 14% of chief academic officers strongly agree that the financial situation at their institution has improved in the past year, and 66% reported that they reallocate funds to support academic programs rather than finding new revenues to support them. The Chronicle of Higher Education also reports the mixed economic message, as appropriations increased 5% for 2015, but half the states are still appropriating less than they were five years ago. Illinois had the largest increase at 21%, but in February 2015, Inside Higher Ed reported that the state’s new governor had asked for a $387 million cut in state funding for higher education. A report from the Library Resource Guide on library budgets in 2015 found that 45% of libraries report increasing budgets (35% report 5% or less for increases), while 55% percent reported flat or decreasing budgets. If deferred maintenance and deferred capital improvement projects are considered as well as population gains, funding for libraries is well short of recovery. In the current environment, continued increases in serial costs add to continuing significant budget pressures on libraries.

The strength of the dollar relative to other world currencies will add additional pressure for libraries, especially outside of the United States, magnifying the impact of annual price increases and fixed budgets. These forces will accelerate the serials world compression as libraries either do not renew subscriptions or shift to alternative means of access. Publishers and vendors will also feel the compression of shifting or declining revenue.

Space, budget, and lack of widespread access continued to compress the number of print format orders in 2014. Some 88% of the publishers responding to the 2014 EBSCO Budgeting and Trends Survey indicated that their print business had declined.

Consumer magazines included in the Alliance for Audited Media “Top 25 U.S. Consumer Magazines for June 2014” reported a slight decline in subscriptions of 1.8%. The report also notes that digital replica or digital edition sales comprised 3.8% of circulation, up from 3.3% in 2013.

Unbundling?

Discussion of the budget pressure and long-term viability of the large e-journal package, or Big Deal, continued in 2014 with publication of a number of studies, including one by Bergstrom, Courant, McAfee and Williams, “Evaluating big deal journal bundles,” in which the authors examined many elements of e-journal packages including pricing and cost-­effectiveness. The debate on Big Deal e-journal packages is likely to continue for some time. Some 57% of library respondents to the 2014 EBSCO Budgeting and Trends Survey reported that they would consider breaking up e-journal packages, subscribing only to the most used titles in the bundle to achieve their budget goals; 77% respondents indicated that they were likely to renegotiate multiyear agreements for lower overall prices and/or price caps. Some 74% of publishers responding to the same survey indicated that they were likely to offer smaller subsets of content in the coming year; 78% of publisher respondents thought that the Big Deal would be around in four years (2019). In an evaluation of more than 3,000 e-journal packages handled by EBSCO for 2014, the average price increase was 6.6%.

Realizing that improved traditional usage statistics and emerging alternative metric tools help to quantify use of materials as well as the wider impact of university-based research within the scholarly community but do not solve the budget issues or the collection compression dilemma, a number of publishers are making articles available via individual article services such as Deep Dyve, ReadCube, and the Copyright Clearance Center’s Get It Now service. The varying levels of access and ownership options offered by these services provide additional collection options. At this point, the vast majority of content is still delivered via the subscription model, but 69% of librarians responding to the EBSCO Budgeting and Trends Survey said that they believed individual article access in combination with individual journal subscriptions would ultimately replace the e-journal package or Big Deal. Some 45% of library respondents indicated that their institution provided at least some support for individual article access. Scholarly sharing will be an important aspect of individual article access moving forward.

Only in one area are things moving the other way, toward greater consolidation: at the company level. Mergers and acquisitions occur all the time in the business world, but few are of the magnitude of the Springer Macmillan merger that took place in January 2015. The joining of the two companies resulted in the creation of the second largest publisher, second only in revenue to Elsevier. As noted in the analysis of the charts, content from the five major publishers—Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, and SAGE—continues to represent more than half of the titles in the merged ISI indexes.

Open access

Open access (OA) continues to develop, but some financial analysts, such as Sami Kassab, executive director at investment firm Exane BNP Paribas, now believe that OA may no longer be a pressure point on commercial publishing. OA has not been the disruptive force on commercial publishing for which many had hoped. The growth in the gold OA model (author pays to have article published as OA) has allowed commercial publishers to become large producers of OA content. The largest OA publisher remains Springer’s BioMed Central. Publishers have embraced open access as another means of generating revenue and have been fairly successful.

Nonetheless, there were many new developments on the OA front this year. The University of California launched two new OA efforts: Collabra and Luminos. Knowledge Unlatched released its report on its open access book pilot project. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation joined many other funding organizations and now requires articles that result from its research grants to be published on an OA basis. A good summation of open access mandates was presented at the American Library Association (ALA) Midwinter Meeting in January 2015 by Richard Huffine.

Open access continues to be a very hot topic in scholarly communications, generating a good number of studies, initiatives, and discussion but not much consensus. Emerging from the OA discussions is the shifting of costs from libraries/readers to authors/funders. However, since large amounts of research dollars still come from public sources, and the source for authors’ fees dips into the same well, shifting costs does little to address the issue that costs for scholarly communications continue to grow faster than sources of revenue. OA is not relieving the pressure that rising costs have on library budgets. One of the conclusions of the joint research conducted by the ORBIS Cascade Alliance, Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and Boston Library Consortiums in 2013 and 2014 and reported at the 2015 ER&L Conference was that the financial tipping point for open access is not on the horizon.

Swets: the fracture on the fault line

The bankruptcy of Swets Information Services in September 2014 resulted in upheaval for both libraries and publishers. Since the announcement, much has been said about the bankruptcy but perhaps nothing describes the situation better than Swets did itself in its 2013 annual report. Changing market conditions—the hard contraction in information services budgets and market leading up to, during, and after the Great Recession; the shift from individual print orders to e-journals or e-journal packages and a corresponding change in the publisher commission structure; changes in order placement patterns either to directly with the publisher or via other groups such as consortia—in combination with a heavy debt load and the lack of a broad financial foundation created a situation from which the company could not recover. Between libraries that prepaid Swets and publishers that were either not paid initially by Swets or were extended graced access to content to libraries that prepaid, the total impact will be significant and shared. Losses range from a publicly stated $3 million at the University of Colorado Boulder to an estimated $5 million reported by Wiley in its second quarter FY15 results. It’s easy to focus on larger libraries and companies that report big numbers, but the real impact of the Swets bankruptcy may be on smaller libraries and publishers that are less able to absorb the losses.

2015 by the numbers

This price survey, with the exception of Table 3, uses a print-preferred pricing model based on the standard retail price for the titles in the selected indexes. Print pricing is used for consistency because not all publishers make their online-only pricing available or do not have a standard online-only retail price. The index does contain some pricing for print plus online and online (28% of the titles) but only if those were the only rates offered.

Table 1: Average prices for science, technology, and medical (STM) serials remain the highest, compared with prices for serials in other subject areas. Chemistry has historically seen the highest average serials prices, and that has not changed. Recent reports show that the average price for chemistry journals hovers around $4,871 annually. There were only slight shifts in relative rankings for subject areas based on the overall average prices for serials. Botany and geology swapped places from last year, while zoology moved up several places to place above technology.

TABLE 1: AVERAGE 2015 PRICE FOR SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES

DISCIPLINE AVERAGE PRICE
PER TITLE
DISCIPLINE AVERAGE PRICE
PER TITLE
Chemistry $4,871 Zoology $2,073
Physics 4,341 Technology 2,058
Engineering 3,039 Math & Computer Science 1,866
Biology 2,977 Health Sciences 1,694
Astronomy 2,730 General Science 1,643
Food Science 2,496 Agriculture 1,589
Botany 2,277 Geography 1,571
Geology 2,195
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

Table 2: There was little change in the relative order for the average price per title sorted by country of origin. While the average price per title increased from previous years, titles from Russia and Ireland continue to have the highest cost per title for all included in the merged ISI indexes. Hungary, Austria, the Netherlands, Singapore, Germany, Switzerland, England, and New Zealand round out the top ten countries with the highest cost per title in 2015. The list may show more movement next year as the impact of the strong dollar affects pricing.

TABLE 2: AVERAGE 2015 PRICE PER TITLE BY COUNTRY

COUNTRY NO. OF
ISI TITLES
AVG. PRICE
PER TITLE
COUNTRY NO. OF
ISI TITLES
AVG. PRICE
PER TITLE
Russia 47 $4,942 Greece 5 $1,272
Ireland 39 3,875 United States 2,751 1,212
Austria 23 3,461 China 9 928
Hungary 13 3,153 Australia 62 689
Netherlands 571 2,988 Norway 16 545
Singapore 22 2,730 Sweden 13 541
Germany 420 2,234 Japan 53 539
Switzerland 83 2,170 France 114 513
England 2,178 1,915 Korea (South) 11 492
New Zealand 25 1,382 Canada 83 461
AVERAGE COST OF ALL TITLES: $1,933
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

Table 3: Table 3 examines the titles in the combined ISI Arts and Humanities, Science Citation, and Social Sciences Citation indexes, which offer published rates for online formats. As in past years, the data reflects online only, print plus free online, and the first tier of any tiered pricing, with the common element being pricing for the online format.

TABLE 3: AVERAGE 2015 PRICE FOR ONLINE JOURNALS IN THE ISI INDEXES*

DISCIPLINE AVERAGE PRICE
PER TITLE
DISCIPLINE AVERAGE PRICE
PER TITLE
Chemistry $4,488 Social Sciences $875
Physics 4,048 Business & Economics 856
Astronomy 2,648 Education 838
Biology 2,608 Sociology 811
Engineering 2,281 Political Science 723
Botany 2,151 Recreation 653
Zoology 2,087 Anthropology 609
Health Sciences 1,655 Law 564
Geology 1,596 General Works 518
Math & Computer Science 1,583 Arts & Architecture 503
Food Science 1,538 Library Science 493
Technology 1,517 Philosophy & Religion 460
General Science 1,391 History 445
Agriculture 1,219 Language & Literature 375
Geography 1,141 Music 311
Military & Naval Sciences 940 TOTAL AVERAGE COST $1,413
Psychology 896
*Prices represent print-plus-free-online, online-only, and the first tier of tiered pricing
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

Elsevier, Wiley, Springer, Taylor & Francis, and SAGE continued to dominate the combined indexes with more than half of the titles (54%); the percentage of open access titles remained about the same as in previous years at 3% in the 2015 combined indexes. The 2015 average cost for this set of titles is $1,413. While this increase over last year’s average price of $1,340 may seem modest, it is important to bear in mind that the individual titles in the data set and associated pricing models reflected by Table 3 change each year, so the price increases can be owing to changes in the data as well as actual price changes. What remains consistent is the relative high cost of titles by subject area, with science and technology areas at the top of the chart.

The 2016 forecast

The 2016 serials marketplace will continue to see steady increases in prices, while scholarly communications and libraries will continue to see dynamic change. Multiple factors are impacting libraries and the information industry, including budget compression, price inflation, the need to fund new research and education directions, open access, government mandates, new evaluation tools, and changing patterns of the distribution of information offered by research platforms and social networks. All elements of the information marketplace—libraries, publishers, and vendors—will continue to be impacted by changing market conditions. The 6% average price increase seen in 2015 is expected to remain fairly constant for 2016, hovering in the 6% to 7% range. Six percent seems to be a level of inflation that is neither too much for libraries to bear nor too little for publishers. However, after the last large business failure of a serials vendor there was a spike in prices the following year, so the demise of Swets could tack on a bit more to the six percent forecast in 2016.

TABLE 6: COST HISTORY FOR TITLES IN MASTERFILE PREMIER

MASTERFILE
PREMIER
NO. OF
TITLES
2013-2015
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2013
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2014
% OF
CHANGE
2013-14
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2015
% OF
CHANGE
2014-15
U.S. 682 $99 $104 4.2 $111 7.2
NON-U.S. 150 $275 $286 4 $299 4.7
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

TABLE 7: 2016 COST PROJECTIONS FOR TITLES IN ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIER

ACADEMIC
SEARCH
PREMIER
NO. OF
TITLES
% OF
LIST
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2015
% OF
COST
PROJECTED
% OF
INCREASE
PROJECTED
2016 AVG.
COST PER
TITLE
% OF
COST
PROJECTED
OVERALL %
INCREASE
U.S. 1,266 40.6 $713 35.6 7.8 $769 36 6.6
NON-U.S. 1,875 59.4 $1,289 64.4 5.9 $1,366 64
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

TABLE 8: COST HISTORY FOR TITLES IN ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIER

SUBJECT AVERAGE NO.
OF TITLES
2013-15
% OF
CHANGE
2013-15
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2013
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2014
% OF
CHANGE
2013-14
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2015
% OF
CHANGE
2014-15
Agriculture 77 -2 $975 $1,030 6 $1,084 5
Anthropology 29 -1 426 464 9 493 6
Arts & Architecture 43 0 296 317 7 338 7
Astronomy 18 0 2,497 2,567 3 2,810 9
Biology 200 -14 1,736 1,837 6 1,969 7
Botany 27 -1 1,535 1,621 6 1,686 4
Business & Economics 107 0 411 433 5 460 6
Chemistry 55 1 3,769 3,973 5 4,196 6
Education 177 -12 475 502 6 533 6
Engineering 189 -4 1,550 1,651 6 1,762 7
Food Science 16 0 661 709 7 769 8
General Science 58 1 834 877 5 969 10
General Works 66 -1 122 127 4 138 8
Geography 55 -3 716 753 5 802 7
Geology 22 -1 1,125 1,200 7 1,270 6
Health Sciences 564 -25 1,040 1,112 7 1,181 6
History 231 -5 309 328 6 351 7
Language & Literature 152 -1 245 258 5 277 7
Law 112 -6 297 312 5 344 10
Library Science 46 -4 209 221 6 230 4
Math & Computer Science 114 -11 1,360 1,449 7 1,516 5
Military & Naval Science 23 3 319 293 -8 354 21
Music 25 -3 237 248 5 259 4
Philosophy & Religion 202 2 281 299 6 320 7
Physics 88 1 3,435 3,662 7 3,795 4
Political Science 66 -1 467 495 6 528 7
Psychology 88 0 772 835 8 894 7
Recreation 11 0 318 337 6 349 4
Social Sciences 26 -3 367 386 5 407 5
Sociology 176 -10 580 619 7 668 8
Technology 28 -1 1,091 1,227 12 1,278 4
Zoology 50 -3 914 975 7 1,036 6
AVERAGE $936 $995 6 $1,057 6
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

TABLE 9: ISI INDEXES COST HISTORY BY LC SUBJECT

SUBJECT AVERAGE NO.
OF TITLES
2013-15
% OF
CHANGE
2013-15
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2013
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2014
% OF
CHANGE
2013-14
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE 2015
% OF
CHANGE
2014-15
Agriculture 172 1 $1,420 $1,502 6 $1,589 6
Anthropology 51 -1 489 521 7 555 7
Arts & Architecture 111 0 369 398 8 420 5
Astronomy 27 0 2,396 2,542 6 2,730 7
Biology 556 -1 2,673 2,809 5 2,977 6
Botany 59 0 2,050 2,170 6 2,277 5
Business & Economics 553 -2 1,184 1,263 7 1,349 7
Chemistry 226 0 4,510 4,696 4 4,871 4
Education 168 1 804 853 6 910 7
Engineering 432 2 2,711 2,878 6 3,039 6
Food Science 23 0 2,192 2,338 7 2,496 7
General Science 86 2 1,453 1,514 4 1,643 9
General Works 68 0 234 248 6 253 2
Geography 106 0 1,369 1,468 7 1,571 7
Geology 97 0 1,952 2,062 6 2,195 6
Health Sciences 1,290 7 1,488 1,585 7 1,694 7
History 342 1 365 389 7 411 6
Language & Literature 482 -19 325 340 5 356 5
Law 109 -1 398 429 8 457 7
Library Science 50 -1 635 683 8 728 7
Math & Computer Science 212 4 1,742 1,799 3 1,866 4
Military & Naval Science 12 0 826 824 0 945 15
Music 60 0 249 263 6 278 5
Philosophy & Religion 219 3 367 390 6 410 5
Physics 227 -1 4,016 4,213 5 4,341 3
Political Science 113 0 676 720 6 766 6
Psychology 178 -1 810 881 9 944 7
Recreation 37 0 531 580 9 624 8
Social Sciences 63 0 767 817 6 869 6
Sociology 332 0 820 880 7 940 7
Technology 75 0 1,835 1,941 6 2,058 6
Zoology 114 1 1,881 1,971 5 2,073 5
AVERAGE $1,511 $1,601 6 $1,691 6
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

TABLE 10: 2016 COST PROJECTIONS BY BROAD SUBJECT

NO. OF
TITLES
% OF
LIST
2015
COST
% OF
COST
AVERAGE
COST PER
TITLE
PROJECTED
% OF
INCREASE
PROJECTED
2016 COST
% OF
COST
PROJECTED
OVERALL %
INCREASE
ARTS AND HUMANITIES CITATION INDEX
U.S. 479 31 $99,960 21 $209 7.5 $100,034 21 5.8
NON-U.S. 1,089 69 387,236 79 356 5.4 387,446 79
SOCIAL SCIENCES CITATION INDEX
U.S. 1,105 39 750,020 30 679 9.2 750,708 30 4.3
NON-U.S. 1,714 61 1,790,228 70 1,044 2.3 1,790,633 70
SCIENCE CITATION INDEX
U.S. 1,312 39 2,587,398 30 1,972 6.8 2,589,158 30 6.7
NON-U.S. 2,045 61 6,012,423 70 2,940 6.6 6,016,419 70
PROJECTED OVERALL INCREASE FOR ALL ISI TITLES: 6.2%
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

The Value of Journals

Journal price data is important for budget management processes, but price alone is not the sole factor determining value. Some metrics like Impact Factor have become important in assessing value and similar value metrics will only increase in importance in the future. Improvements in use data gathering (Counting Online Usage & Networked Electronic Resources [COUNTER] 4) and developments in the altmetrics arena may provide even more data that could be used to help make qualitative assessments of the impact of scholarly publishing.

A project that will standardize altmetrics data is moving into a second phase in 2015. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Alternative Assessment Metrics (Altmetrics) Project plans to develop several standards and recommended practices starting in 2015. Such a clear set of standards is needed to enable altmetrics to become a mainstream assessment tool for scholarly work.

TABLE 4: COMPARISON OF AVERAGE PRICE OF TITLES IN ISI INDEXES BY PRICE TO IMPACT FACTOR

PRICE BAND NO. OF
TITLES
AVG.
PRICE
2015
% PRICE
INCREASE
2014–2015
AVG. OF
LATEST
IMPACT
FACTOR
AVERAGE
EIGENFACTOR
AVG.
ARTICLE
INFLUENCE
SCORE
Less than $201 1,601 $65 -7.5 1.8 0.0067 0.82
Between $201 & $550 1,560 372 5.9 1.63 0.004 0.97
Between $551 & $1,075 1,559 786 6 1.8 0.0068 0.88
Between $1,076 & $2,290 1,551 1,567 6.5 2.55 0.0138 1.08
Greater than $2,290 1,494 4,981 5.8 3.29 0.025 1.26
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

This year we continue to work with the title and publisher data collected for this article to explore the relationship between prices and metrics used to assess journals like Impact Factor, Eigenfactor®, and the Article Influence Score. This year, the relationship between serial costs and numbers of citations was also explored, with interesting results. The metric definitions follow:

THE EIGENFACTOR ® rates journals according to the number of incoming citations, with citations from highly ranked journals weighted to make a larger contribution to the score than citations from poorly ranked journals. Journals are considered to be influential if they are cited often by other influential journals.

The Impact Factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years. The Impact Factor of a journal is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations by the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.

The Article Influence Score is determined by the average influence of a journal’s articles over the first five years after publication. It is calculated by dividing a journal’s Eigenfactor score by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications. The mean Article Influence Score is 1.00. A score greater than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has above-average influence. A score less than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has below-average influence.

ljx150402_periodicals

The pricing data in the merged ISI indexes for 2015 was divided into five price bands; journals priced at $200 or less, journals priced between $201 and $550, $551–$1,075, $1,076–$2,290, and titles priced at more than $2,290. These bands were selected to ensure that the number of titles in each area was reasonably comparable. The average for Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, and Article Influence Score for all titles in a price range was compared to the averages in the other price bands. The results are the chart in Table 4. The Impact Factor and the Eigenfactor tended to show a fairly strong increase with the increase in price. The Article Influence Score did not show a significant increase, with the average for titles less than $1,076 showing an average below the mean of 1 (below average influence) and the more expensive titles showing an average of 1.2 (above average influence).

Although there were increases in the metrics for Impact Factor and Eigenfactor, the increases were not comparable to the increase in price, since the average price ($4,981 for the most expensive journals) was 77 times higher than the least expensive ($65) journals. The increase in prices for the lower cost titles was also lower than the more expensive titles. Higher priced titles do have higher Impact Factors and Eigenfactors, but the increase in metrics is small when compared to the increase in costs. Article Influence Score did not show a strong correlation between higher scores and prices.

The ratio of citations to serial costs is reviewed in Table 5 below. For STM journals, the average prices tend to be high in comparison to other subjects. This scenario changes if the costs are divided by the numbers of citations for the journals. Chemistry has the highest average price for journals but the fourth lowest cost per citation. Journals in chemistry are very expensive, but they are heavily cited. If citations are considered an indicator of value, then chemistry journals, despite high average prices, are extremely high value journals. Conversely, journals in the area of philosophy and literature are relatively cheap but are infrequently cited, so journals in those areas show the highest cost per citation.

Based upon this set of data, if cost per citation is reviewed by type of publisher, it is not surprising that commercial publishers have higher per citation costs than other type of publishers. Commercial publishers showed a cost per citation of 41¢ (average price $1,982), while university presses showed 19¢ (average price $656), and societal publishers showed 7¢ (average price $1,134).

TABLE 5: MERGED ISI INDEXES AVERAGE COST PER CITATION BY LC SUBJECT

LC ARTICLE SUBJECT TERMS NO. OF
TITLES
TOTAL
COST
TOTAL
CITATIONS
COST
PER CITE
Philosophy & Religion 33 $19,558 13,973 $1.40
Language & Literature 170 86,363 63,921 1.35
Music 9 5,216 3,910 1.33
Military & Naval Science 12 12,655 9,976 1.27
Social Sciences 73 58,608 47,095 1.24
General Works 11 9,885 8,458 1.17
History 133 71,999 63,450 1.13
Library Science 50 35,807 32,518 1.1
Arts & Architecture 20 16,291 16,125 1.01
Political Science 117 84,956 86,444 0.98
Education 176 154,556 167,674 0.92
Recreation 36 25,232 34,164 0.74
Math & Computer Science 223 406,229 584,442 0.7
Business & Economics 605 762,113 1,141,000 0.67
Law 139 47,210 74,281 0.64
Sociology 340 320,263 507,100 0.63
Geography 115 158,791 315,378 0.5
Zoology 125 212,593 461,745 0.46
Food Science 21 55,912 124,904 0.45
Physics 241 960,990 2,239,569 0.43
Astronomy 7 7,882 20,249 0.39
Anthropology 41 29,746 78,260 0.38
Botany 64 132,776 368,384 0.36
Engineering 435 1,296,971 3,687,251 0.35
Technology 87 162,053 464,588 0.35
Geology 98 212,168 696,289 0.3
Agriculture 157 239,643 804,453 0.3
Psychology 199 185,188 642,587 0.29
Chemistry 247 1,098,460 3,981,123 0.28
Biology 604 1,662,350 6,617,534 0.25
Health Sciences 1,547 2,391,289 11,656,200 0.21
General Science 110 158,287 1,535,018 0.1
SOURCE: LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2015

Stephen Bosch is Materials Budget, Procurement, and Licensing Librarian, University of Arizona Library, Tucson, and Kittie Henderson is the Vice President for Academic, Law and Public Library Markets, EBSCO Information Services, Birmingham, AL

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Comments

  1. Once again: Gold OA does NOT automatically mean author-side charges or APCs. Most gold OA journals do not charge APCs, although most gold OA articles in biomed and the natural sciences do appear in fee-charging journals. (In the humanities and social sciences, most articles–about 70% in 2013–appear in journals that do not charge APCs.)